History of Radio
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History Of Radio
The history of radio can be closely linked to development of telephone and telegraph technologies. There is a controversy surrounding the invention of radio. It is believed that in 1895, an Italian scientist Guglielmo Marconi successfully sent and received radio signals from his home in Bologna, Italy. In 1899, he transmitted the first wireless signal using a black box right across the English Channel. He patented his invention in the year 1896. Marconi went on to establish his first Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company in England in 1897. His company manufactured and sold spark transmitters to the U.S. Navy.
Interestingly, a talented physicist and scientist from Siberia, Nikola Telsa is credited with invention of the modern-day radio. A significant development happened when the Supreme Court overruled Marconi’s patent in favor of Nikola Telsa in 1943. Similarly, Heinrich Hertz is credited with first detection of radio waves in 1887. He succeeded in producing a spark that crossed across a break and generated electromagnetic waves. By 1893, he had built an oscillator and resonator.
It is known that Samuel F. B. Morse developed the very first relay system. Based upon his elements, the system was improved in 1837, and a demonstration was held with the help of lightening wires and ‘Morse code’ which was an electronic alphabet that could carry messages. The first message was sent in 1884 that said: 'What hath God wrought! The introduction of Morse telegraphic system brought about a transformation in the world of communication.
In 1894, three gifted scientists, Oliver Lodge from Britain, Brauley from France and Alexander Popov from Russia built a coherer for detecting radio waves. It was in 1899 that the US Army established wireless communication in New York and in 1901 they implemented the wireless system.
In 1901, radiotelegraph services were established between five Hawaiian Islands. A remarkable exchange of greetings took place between President Theodore Roosevelt and King Edward VII in 1903 through a Marconi station in Wellfleet, Massachusetts. Marconi opened a regular American-European radiotelegraph service in 1910.
The year 1905 saw a Canadian scientist Reginald Fessenden invent uninterrupted wave voice transmitter. He used a high-frequency alternator to generate voice broadcast over the North Atlantic. Wireless operators on banana boats received the broadcast with the help of crystal receivers.
Harold D. Arnold is credited with the amplifying vacuum tube in 1913. The amplifying vacuum tube enabled the first coast-to-coast telephony and transatlantic radio broadcast in 1915. Edwin Armstrong patented the regenerative circuit that transmitted radio signal through an audion tube in the year 1913. With use of regenerative circuit, he managed to broadcast long-ranging voice transmissions. During the World War I, he developed a circuit that merged high and low frequency radio waves called Superheterodyne circuit.
The development of overseas radiotelegraph service was particularly slow. The basic reason being that the elementary radiotelegraph set released electricity within the circuit and between electrodes. This resulted in instability due to high level of interference. This leakage of circuit was resolved to a great extent with the Alexanderson high-frequency alternator and the De Forest tube. It was the Navy that made significant usage of for wireless communication.
The first commercial radiotelephony connection was established between North America and Europe in the year 1927. It is remarkable to note the first telephone call was made in 1935 with the help of wire and radio circuits. Until 1936, all American transatlantic telephonic communication was routed through UK with a direct radiotelephone circuit established in Paris.
Radio has a long history with some very advanced development in technology like digital audio broadcasting and satellite transmission. There are many stalwart names contributing to the advanced technology. The most primitive form of communication has today found such a great application in development in many scientific findings.
Other Sites of Interest:
History of the Internet
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